Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Design Courses & Studios Manual


Design Courses & Studios Manual

 Guidelines

Prepared by: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  

Table of Contents

Introduction                                                                             
Studio Courses                                                                              
Tutoring of Individual Students                                                    
Projects: Size, Complexity and Contents                                       
Themes and Progression of Studios                                               
Courses Descriptions: Theoretical and Practical Contents             
Skills: Thinking and Communication                                             
Language of Communication                                                         
Manual and CAD Skills                                                                 
Textbooks                                                                                      
Grades                                                                                            
Content and skills to be assessed                                                  
Weighting of work                                                                         
Grading Systems and Examinations                                             
The Jury Review                                                                           
Types of Jury                                                                                 
Jury format                                                                                  
Documentation and Retention of Projects                                   
Complementary Courses                                                            
Outcome Assessment                                                                
Students/Assistant Ratio in Design Studios                           
Design Studio Operation Procedure                                             
Responsibilities of Faculty Members and TA's                             
Design Criticism                                                                         
Fieldtrips and Guest Speakers                                                   
Relationship with Professional Practice                                      
Community Outreach                                                             
Academic Honesty                                                                   
Class Attendance                                           
Studio Etiquette                                                                  
Student Performance                                                              
Cumulative Development                                                     
Notebook and Portfolio                                                      
Studio Policy and Procedure                                                 
Use of Design Studio Learning Resources                             
Ownership of Work                                                            
Suggested Academic Policies                                        

Introduction

This document contains necessary information for the conduct of design studios (DS) at the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Engineering, Qatar University. The design studio is a setting simulating the experience of the architect in a professional architectural office. It is the traditional educational setting used by all architectural schools all over the world. It is considered the spinal cord of the architectural program, that is expected to incorporate all the knowledge gained by the student from other courses and experiences.

Figure (1) The Organization of Knowledge in Architecture Education

The long hours spent in the studio should be productive. The one-to-one tutoring approach is very valuable and is not present in many other disciplines. The project-based-approach, using a project to deliver educational objectives, is being copied by many other disciplines as the state of the art approach to education. The design studio has many inherited characteristics such as:
      1.          the subjective evaluation of the design projects,
      2.          the integration of other courses in the design studio,
      3.          the efficient use of studio time,
      4.          the exchange of ideas and criticism,
      5.          the jury system, and
      6.          other issues that will be mentioned during the discussion of the following sections.
The goal of this document is to provide a base (a common ground) for the conduct of design studios at the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning at Qatar University. The document should be accessible by faculty members, teaching assistants and students alike.

Studio Courses

The studio enables the synthetic nature of the professional architectural process to be simulated in the school environment. From the very first project, students, as they probe the terms of the brief or form judgments on the propriety or feasibility of making a design intervention in a particular way, are exercising the skills of professional practice. The same is true when they test possibilities with their peers and tutors in debate, make proposals for how their projects may be made, and again when they commit their resources to drawing, modeling and presenting their schemes at the reviews and pin ups. Many of these professional practice aspects may be explored in an unselfconsciously conventional and unsystematic way, but as the scope of projects and the range of themes covered by critique at reviews both develop, students will be exposed to an increasingly explicit pattern of agendas on construction and process management that set a firm foundation for the course treatments of professional practice issues which follow.

Tutoring of Individual Students

Architectural design tutoring is conducted on one-to-one basis. Each students require from 15 to 20 minuets of individual tutoring every design studio session to discuss and correct his or her design project solution regarding the design project problems. That involves understanding, intentions, concepts, solutions, presentation and communication. Projects evolve through several stages of design development. Each design stage requires formal revision and feedback from all studio instructors (FM and TAs) to agree upon and exchange ideas regarding each student's design solution. Every week or two an internal review involving all students and all studio instructors is conducted to provide each student with a comprehensive feedback regarding his or her design solution in order to share instructors and students views and comments regarding the design projects. This is an important stage because each student is developing his or her own ideas with the assistance of the design instructors. Students' design ideas do not necessarily conform with all their instructor's preferences. That's why design studio instructors need to know each other's views and assist all students in a coherent way. The role of the design studio instructor is to guide the students to achieve their desired goals in a coherent and professional way. The instructor should NOT DICTATE his views on the students. He or she should help the students understand the problem and reach correct solutions while bracketing his biases and preferences - which is a very challenging task.

Projects: Size, Complexity and Contents

The progress of the "Design Problem Complexity and Size" forms the basic guidelines for selection of projects in each design studio. The goal is to expose the students to a variety of design problems during their education. It is impossible to cover all the building types and sizes during the studios. The student should learn how to tackle any design problem in a scientific and a professional way.

Themes and Progression of Studios

"Design Courses: Themes - Focus - Objectives" document identifies the focus of each design studio as well as the basis for students' evaluation. The weighing system is designed so that the emphasis is placed on one theme for each course, without ignoring the other complementing themes. The grading of design studio, which is an educational setting, should be different than a real architectural office. The process of design is as important as the product. Students should be aware of this fact and should focus their attention on the process of design as well as the final product. The chart should be used as a guide for formulating the design projects' briefs.

Courses Descriptions: Theoretical and Practical Contents

All design studios should adhere to course descriptions stated at the University catalog. Attention should be given to the theoretical component of the design studio courses. Reading and writing assignments are an essential part of the designer skills. The required reading list should be stated in the course outline and be made available to students. They should cover subjects such as: Design Methods, Theory of Design, Design Data, Building Types, etc. Other reading material that are indirectly and subconsciously enrich the design philosophy, such as; poems, stories, novels, philosophical manuscripts, etc. should also be used.
A weekly lecture is required to introduce design theories and methods, discuss reading material, students' research findings and group activities. Lectures on design methods, design principles, presentation techniques, supplementary reading materials, lectures and guest speakers are important activities supporting the design studio.
There are many announcements that need to be conveyed to all students at the same time to insure that they receive the same message regarding submission timing and presentation requirements. The use of e-learning facilities such as Blackboard is very effective in communicating effectively with all students. All course information, teaching materials and announcements should be posted regularly on the Blackboard site.

Skills: Thinking and Communication

There are many skills that the student should learn from the design studio. Among those skills is the ability to think and solve architectural design problems. At the same time, students’ ability to communicate their design ideas and thinking process is essential to their future practice. Both verbal and written communication skills are essential.

Language of Communication

The language of communication in the design studio is English. It is obligatory that all instructions, conversations, presentations, discussions, and any other activity to be conducted in English. There should not be a tendency to simplify the studio instructions and translate them into Arabic. Students are responsible for all text and graphics that appear in their projects. Spelling mistakes should be penalized.

Manual and CAD Skills

Manual skills should be stressed during the first design courses and should continue to develop throughout the studio series. There should be a balance between manual and computer design and drafting skills. The use of computer is encouraged during the first design courses as a drafting tool but not as a design tool. Students should learn how to write and present their assignments using computer programs from day one in the department. They should learn how to use the computer for drafting parallel to learning their manual graphic skills. They should learn how to use the computer to aid their thinking skills.

Textbooks

It is important to select appropriate text books for the design studios and cover the text book during the semester. Other material could be supplemented in the form of handouts. The textbook is an integral part of the design studio content. One text book is required for each design studio and should be directly related to the nature of the design studio theme.

Grades

The criteria to be used in grading will be explained in the project brief. Students should understand the nature of the project, what is expected, and how to address the issues of each assignment before spending time on the project. All projects must be turned in complete and on time. Late projects should be penalized. The exact penalty for incomplete work will depend on the discretion of the studio instructor--students should ask about this if it is not made clear.
Each letter grade carries a specific meaning:
A     (10-15% of students) means outstanding work. The work shows innovation and a significant depth of understanding of the project requirements. The project has been fully developed and well communicated graphically. Generally there has been an unusual or unique concept employed which enhances the solution. The full potential of the problem has been demonstrated beyond expectation.
B     (20-30% of students) means good work. Project solutions have exceeded all requirements of the project statement and show an above average depth of understanding. The project demonstrates an above average clarity of idea, execution and presentation.
C     (30-40% of students) means average work. The project solution adequately satisfies the project statement but generally lacks some depth of understanding and development. The overall project lacks innovation and craft is just adequate.
D     (10-15% of students) means poor work. The problem solution is extremely weak and lacks depth, understanding and innovation. Craft is weak and inappropriate to the class expectations.
F     means unacceptable work. The project does not resolve the problem statement. The work shows a lack of understanding and demonstrates skill inappropriate to this class.
To pass the course, the students must demonstrate competency in the semester's main topics and issues.

Content and skills to be assessed

It is expected that all students will have an understanding of the aims and objectives of the course and develop strategies for the interpretation of project briefs. The following content and skills assessment guidelines are suggested as a mechanism for describing how students will be assessed. These guidelines should be reflected in the course assessment feedback sheet.
Context and theory: How well has the student observed the brief, i.e. the aims and objectives of the project, research, analysis of precedence, theme of project, identification, documentation and analysis of project aims, broad research and translation of ideas?
Technology: Structural and construction system. Environmental control systems.
Representation technique: Media, scale, and documentation of project. Well executed, clearly annotated, appropriate representation for scale, drawings, material etc. and innovative representation techniques.
Communication: Communication of intent, logic and precise information.

Weighting of work

Each submission will be assessed using the following considerations:
Criterion based according to the fulfillment of the project criteria
Norm based on expectations of proficiency in documentation, interpretation and presentation
Comparison with other students peer assessment and review
Self reference professional experience with students at similar levels in comparable programs, regionally and internationally
Personal view based on tutor and/or studio co-ordinators professional feedback to student work.
Qatar University employs the following numerical grading system guide:
Grade
Min. %
Max.%
A
90
100
B+
85
90
B
80
85
C+
75
80
C
70
75
D+
65
70
D
60
65
F
0
60

Grading Systems and Examinations

Grading is the most difficult aspect of the design studio. A unified grading system is to be used for all courses. It should be made according to the following criteria:
Term-work
Final Exam
Mid-exam
Description
Courses
20
50
30
History, Theory, ...
Theoretical Courses
40
40
20
Materials and Constructions, Computer Aided Design, ...
Practical Courses
40
Progress
40
Evaluation
20
Jury
Design Studios, Communication, Design Basics, …
Design Courses *
50
Progress
50
Juries

Senior Project 1 and 2
Senior Project
Evaluation of design projects is one of the most difficult tasks in design education. Due to the nature of architectural design and the fact that there are many good solutions that a single project can have, the judgment is more "qualitative" than "quantitative" and each architect can find advantages and disadvantages in any design solution. Also, qualitative judgments change with time and what was considered acceptable and creative few years ago is considered traditional and unacceptable today. There are many "schools of thought" in architecture, and each one has its own values and priorities used for evaluation. Students should know this fact and stop bargaining about their grades. Student's attitude inside the studio is part of the grade.

The Jury Review

In his book "Architecture 101", Andy Pressman wrote:
The environment of review is subject to variation and may be a function of the specific jury makeup and other factors, but it is often charged with academic and emotional intensity. This extreme is not usually the most conducive for reflective learning. However, I do think reviews can be excellent exercises for improving presentation of ... work in front of groups of people. This is, of course, a very important part of the process. ... a few words on "emotional trauma." As in any intense and sometimes emotionally demanding experience, you will occasionally feel somewhat drained, beat-up, even hurt in the wake of rough review. The best way to roll with the punches is through talking, both to faculty members and to your peers. Ventilate and express how you feel. You will surely be comforted by the relief that comes from talking, and strengthened by the understanding and support of allies.
The jury is considered an educational setting where students learn how to communicate their design ideas and defend their views professionally and eloquently. They also practice the use of language in communicating their design ideas and projects. These are skills required for their professional practice. It is a setting similar to what they expect to confront in their daily professional practice experience. The juror should be able to evaluate this educational aspect and not only the project drawings. Architectural design is both a product and a process. And both aspects need to be evaluated during design education.

Types of Jury

There are two types of jury sessions;
      1.          Interim jury which is conducted weekly or biweekly to discuss the students' progress in a public and get feedback from instructors and other students, and
      2.          Final jury which is conducted at the end of the design project to evaluate the final students' work.
Because most design courses do not have "final examinations", the jury is considered the final examination for design studios. The attendance of the jurors is as important as the attendance of the students. It is a long and exhausting process of reviewing tens of projects in a relatively short period of time.
The following are some important considerations during the jury session:
        ·           Asking questions in jury sessions is different than reviewing projects during studio hours.
        ·           Questions should be brief, clear, and short to allow the student to speak as much as possible.
        ·           Fatal design mistakes should be pointed out and the good aspects of the design should be stressed.
        ·           The jury should not be turned into a "monologue" wasting the time and energy of other jury members and defying the purpose of the jury. The design instructor should budget the time as the coordinator of the jury.
        ·           Despite its hectic and time-consuming process, jury reviews should be an essential and respectable part of the design studio experience.
        ·           The verbal presentation of the project, the ability to defend one's idea and communication skills gained during the jury session are important educational objectives.
        ·           The evaluation conducted during the final jury is made according to the educational objectives of the design studio and the course level.
        ·           The evaluation should be based on criteria set by the studio instructor according to the nature of the project.
        ·           The evaluation should be conducted by experienced persons, from the department or the professional field, who can judge the student's development and the design project at the same time.

Jury format

In order to be able to finish the jury within a reasonable period of time and effort for students and jury members, there are many formats used in different universities for performing a design jury; a) the student present his or her project to all jury members and receive their feedback and comments (15-20 minuets/student), b) students are divided into two or more groups and each group is reviewed by a different group of jurors, c) students stand by their projects and jury members go around ask them questions and evaluate their work, and d) the jury is conducted without the attendance of the students with the purpose of evaluating the students work only. The course instructor should decide beforehand which of these methods is going to be applied.
The jury should follow the following procedure:
        ·           The course instructor should invite at least two (2) design instructors to participate as official jurors who grade students’ projects.
        ·           All department faculty members and guests are welcome to attend but grades are given by the invited design instructors who should attend all presentations.
        ·           The grades should follow the format of the attached grading sheet.

Documentation and Retention of Projects

Retention of students’ work by the faculty is necessary for department displays, accreditation purposes, instructor's teaching portfolio and other needs of the department and the university. The department will make an effort to provide access to retained work if required for students’ portfolio or for job interviews. All projects should be documented using a systematic and reliable method. The documentation of the projects is essential for accreditation by NAAB.
Hard copies of samples of best, average and just pass examples should be stored at a safe location. All projects should be stored in a digital format. Every semester, all digitally stored files should be copied on a CD for permanent storage. The department should update its internet site to display the best examples of students’ work and update it regularly. Models are very difficult to keep in good condition for a long time. They require space and storage facilities beyond the capacity of any department. Models should be photographed and few samples should be displayed in the department.

Complementary Courses

The design studio is the spinal cord of the architectural program. All knowledge gained by the student in other courses should be used in the design studio. There are many ways to achieve this goal:
      1.          use a co-teaching approach that allows more than one faculty member to teach the same studio focusing on different aspects,
      2.          parallel courses that cover aspects of the design studio project, and
      3.          experimental design studios that allow the introduction of new ways of teaching such as the paperless design studio, firm design studio, design-build studio, research-based design studio, and more.

Outcome Assessment

There are many ways to assess the outcome of the design studio education. Outcome means focusing on the students acquired knowledge and skills. Assessment means a standardized method of evaluation of the program efficiency. One way to assess the outcome of design studios is by using:
1. a qualifying exam as part of the graduation project. The qualifying exam should be passed before the students' graduation,
2. evaluation of students' portfolio of work and projects, or
3. preparation of a written report or paper.

Students/Assistant Ratio in Design Studios

The ratio between students and assistants should not exceed the 12 to 1 ratio. This ratio will provide the optimum individual review time for student’s work. The one-to-one student/staff relation is essential in Design Studio teaching.

Design Studio Operation Procedure

The class should be divided equally among assistants into groups of students. Assistants conduct their daily reviews and progress assessment each class and report that to the course instructor. The instructor is responsible for setting the course parameters, contents, and projects. The instructor is also responsible for the theoretical part of the course based on the prescribed text book(s) or any other references he/she might suggest on a reading list for students, and must also oversee the students’ progress occasionally and give them some overall guidance. The instructor is responsible for the students final grading and for the overall evaluation of their progress during the course.

Responsibilities of Faculty Members and TA's

The design studio is the responsibility of the faculty member, who should decide the project type, size, and educational objectives. Students should be divided equally among teaching assistants and architects who will be responsible of tutoring the students towards the educational objectives of the studio stated by the faculty member. Teaching assistants and architects should document the progress of the student and write a profile about each student at the end of the semester. The faculty member should focus on the theoretical part of the studio, the time schedule and evaluate design studio progress. The teaching assistant should administer the students' submissions and progress. The faculty member should administer the juries and presentations. Grading is the responsibility of the faculty member. Evaluation of students’ progress made by teaching assistants is very important in developing the final grade of the student, yet the final responsibility towards the University is faculty member alone.

Design Criticism

Criticism is an essential part of design education. The primary role of criticism in a design studio is that of supplying critical evaluation of the students' design concepts and their development. Students may be exposed to several systems of value held by the various studio critics and outsiders. Based on these alternative value systems and on their own background, students will build a system of values of their own, and thus habitually criticize their own work. This development of self-criticism is an important goal of the design studio. Criticism is also a teaching method. Its principal subject matter is design methods, including the activities of defining and understanding design problems; proposing and testing various solutions; and carrying the best solution to a final goal. Studio instructors present to the students a method or variety of methods for executing these activities. The critic often takes on the role that is normally filled by the client. In this role the critic is a sounding board for the student's ideas. The critic brings questions and demands similar to those a client would have. The critic reacts to the student's proposed designs and is the second party in the dialogue necessary to the design process. Finally, the critic evaluates student performance. This evaluation is not only concerned with the end product of any particular design project, but also the student's interests, work habits, attitudes, patience, communicative ability (verbal and graphic), rate and quality of development, and promise as a future professional.

Fieldtrips and Guest Speakers

Field trips and visits to completed or under construction projects are very fruitful experiences to design students and should form an integrated part of the design studio. Also visits to firms of practicing architects and architectural firms should be encouraged. Guest speakers should be invited to attend studio sessions and critic the students work during their progress. Guest critics from the profession should be invited to the jury sessions based on the judgment of the design studio instructor.

Relationship with Professional Practice

Barriers that have existed between the architectural profession and its counterpart schools are being quietly broken through. The Firm Studio approach is an interesting model to be followed. The Firm Design Studio integrates theory and practice, students and professionals, schools and practices. Students will have an opportunity to work with clients and professionals from large architectural firms. Students will learn to understand professional design practice and the way firms tackle projects. Participating professionals, in turn, will benefit from the input and new ideas generated by students. Renewed interest in their projects and the chance to teach will make this opportunity worthwhile for the involved architects. It is highly recommended that a professional architect be hired as part time in the design studio.

Community Outreach

Design Studio focusing on real life needs and situations are encouraged. Several projects were designed for community institutions whether public or private. This will develop the student's understanding about the architectural design and design process within a realistic context. It will also help students to apply theory of architecture in a site with particular constraints and its reaction to real life situation. This trend should be encouraged and the surrounding community should benefit from the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning resources and capabilities. Design projects should have a goal and purpose to help the society.

Academic Honesty

Any form of dishonesty or unprofessional conduct during the course will result in a failing grade for the project and/or course and potential suspension respectively from the College and University. Plagiarism and cheating are serious offenses and may be punished by failure on the exam, paper or project, failure in the course and/or expulsion from the University. Plagiarism and cheating incidents will be reported to the Department Chairman and the College. Students should neither give nor receive unauthorized aid on their academic work. In the design studio the issue of creativity and originality is often raised by students. Some students become concerned that ideas and forms did not spring spontaneously from their minds. In design, what has come before ideas and forms is most often the material out of which the designer will constitute his current proposals. This implies the study and use of precedent. The fine line between plagiarism and original work can be found where students fail to absorb and understand precedents in such a way that they can be transformed and integrated into the particularities of new circumstances.

Class Attendance

Attendance of design studio is a must according to university regulations. Students should not receive credit for attending the course. They should also participate in the discussions and present their work progress every time they attend the studio. Students should not be allowed to attend the studio if they arrive 15 minuets later than the beginning time of the studio, without a prior permission from the instructor. If a student fails to attend 3 sessions of the design studio he/she receives the 1st warning by the instructor. If the student fails to attend 3 more studio sessions receives the final warning. If the student fails to attend one more class after that he receives instructor in this course.
Students are responsible for any announcements and submission dates announced during the design studio that they did not attend. Studio classes usually meet three times a week for three hours each session. Students are expected to be in class on time, to be in class during the entire period, to have the required equipment and supplies, and to be working on their design projects. Class time will be used for design, drawing, model-building, discussions, lectures, criticisms, reviews and other related activities. Daily attendance will be taken. Students are required to attend class regularly throughout the semester.
Attendance is required throughout assigned studio time, unless there is a serious need for an excused absence. If such a need occurs the student should let the instructors know before missing class. For medical excuses, the student is responsible of following the University procedures. Students are responsible for obtaining and learning material missed during an unexcused absence.

Studio Etiquette

        ·           All mobile phones or any other communication device should be turned off during the studio hours. Listening to audio devices during class time is not allowed, simply in consideration of everyone working in the studio. Outside of class time, it is only allowed with headsets. Smoking is strictly prohibited in the studio and all interior spaces.
        ·           Design studios offer opportunities to learn professional work habits through the practice of scheduling, time management, and the keeping of orderly records and work spaces.
        ·           Adherence with the ethic that one should leave the environment in better condition than he or she found it is expected. You are passing through these studios for a short time and need to keep them in good shape for those that will follow you. Studios also provide a context for the development of self criticism and the interchange of ideas among peers. Students should be reminded by faculty members about this etiquette at the beginning of the semester.

Student Performance

As suggested by NAAB Accreditation System, criteria for student performance are stated in terms of understanding and ability -- levels of ability that students should achieve during their studies. See NAAB Matrix for detailed objectives for each Design Course as suggested by the department NAAB committee.
The criteria encompass two levels of accomplishment:
Understanding - The capacity to classify, compare, summarize, explain and/or
interpret information.
Ability - Proficiency in using specific information to accomplish a task, correctly
selecting the appropriate information, and accurately applying it to the solution of a
specific problem, while also distinguishing the effects of its implementation.
While students, for example, are encouraged to explore wide variety of media to represent design ideas and concepts during the first two semesters, after the first year they are expected to have developed: competency in the use of pencil and ink on vellum, board, paper, trace; an understanding of various color media, such as Prisma pencil; and an awareness of reprographic techniques typically used by design professionals.

Cumulative Development

Throughout each semester, new design principles and concepts as well as a variety of skills, techniques will be introduced. Students are expected to understand the new material, and to apply it not only in the current exercise but also in subsequent studio work. Such cumulative development fosters a deepening in the student's understanding of design through the practice of repetition and reflection.

Notebook and Portfolio

Students are expected to keep their course syllabus and project statements in a - ring binder. Additional handouts and other material relevant to the studio should also be kept in this binder in an organized fashion. This is separate from the sketchbook that each student will be encouraged to keep. A portfolio will be required in which all work should be kept in chronological order. Students are required to maintain portfolios documenting all academic and design studio work. These portfolios are evaluated at the time the students apply to professional degree programs. They are also used to measure individual progress.

Studio Policy and Procedure

Studio activity during studio hours should be directly related to assigned projects. Students should not expect the teaching staff to respond to work until there is substantial worthy material to which they can respond. Team teaching means that instructors will share project introductions and critiques generally; but it does not mean that students will hear the same advice or comments from each instructor during the course of a project. It will be up to the student to think critically and creatively; to formulate, develop and defend his/her own ideas during a project - the work and the outcomes from it are the student's responsibility. Keeping the studio orderly and clean, with clear aisle-ways for easy and quick circulation, is important due to life-safety concerns and is the responsibility of the entire class. Students should respect the rights and needs of others in the studio with you.

Use of Design Studio Learning Resources

Learning Resources are extremely valuable. They should be dealt with in an orderly manner and under the supervision of responsible persons. These include all audio-visual equipment, electronic and electrical devices, books and digital materials and drafting and coloring materials. The ALRC of the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning should not be used by students without supervision.

Ownership of Work

All design studio work submitted for credit becomes the property of the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning. This material is required for accreditation and review procedures. Students may obtain a copy for their portfolio production. Only the Department can decide to release some of this material to students. In case of competition submissions and design addressing specific project in the community, credit should be given to the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, College o Engineering, Qatar University, the instructor, and TA's. The credit should not be given to the students alone!

Suggested Academic Policies

The following academic policies, beyond the requirements of the University, are suggested to be applicable to all students in the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning:
      1.          Students receiving a grade of "D" or below in two consecutive semesters of the Design Studio sequence must not proceed to the following design studio before improving their grade in the latest design course where a grade "D" was obtained. These students should be advised to change their major!
      2.          Any student receiving an “I ” in a design studio must complete all work necessary to receive a grade prior to the first day of the next studio in the student’s prescribed sequence in order to be eligible to enroll in that studio.